CyberSpace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure
Cyberspace provides a platform for innovation and prosperity and the means to improve general welfare around the globe. But with the broad reach of a loose and lightly regulated digital infrastructure, great risks threaten nations, private enterprises, and individual rights. The government has a responsibility to address these strategic vulnerabilities to ensure that the United States and its citizens, together with the larger community of nations, can realize the full potential of the information technology revolution.
The architecture of the Nation’s digital infrastructure, based largely upon the Internet, is not secure or resilient. Without major advances in the security of these systems or significant change in how they are constructed or operated, it is doubtful that the United States can protect itself from the growing threat of cybercrime and state-sponsored intrusions and operations. Our digital infrastructure has already suffered intrusions that have allowed criminals to steal hundreds of millions of dollars and nation-states and other entities to steal intellectual property and sensitive military information. Other intrusions threaten to damage portions of our critical infrastructure. These and other risks have the potential to undermine the Nation’s confidence in the information systems that underlie our economic and national security interests.
The Federal government is not organized to address this growing problem effectively now or in the future. Responsibilities for cybersecurity are distributed across a wide array of federal departments and agencies, many with overlapping authorities, and none with sufficient decision authority to direct actions that deal with often conflicting issues in a consistent way. The government needs to integrate competing interests to derive a holistic vision and plan to address the cybersecurity-related issues confronting the United States. The Nation needs to develop the policies, processes, people, and technology required to mitigate cybersecurity-related risks.
Information and communications networks are largely owned and operated by the private sector, both nationally and internationally. Thus, addressing network security issues requires a public-private partnership as well as international cooperation and norms. The United States needs a comprehensive framework to ensure coordinated response and recovery by the government, the private sector, and our allies to a significant incident or threat.
The United States needs to conduct a national dialogue on cybersecurity to develop more public awareness of the threat and risks and to ensure an integrated approach toward the Nation’s need for security and the national commitment to privacy rights and civil liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and law.
Research on new approaches to achieving security and resiliency in information and communications infrastructures is insufficient. The government needs to increase investment in research that will help address cybersecurity vulnerabilities while also meeting our economic needs and national security requirements.
The Low Mass Solution to 0402 Tombstoning
Author: Eric Reno, product engineer II
Tombstoning occurs when a part is pulled up on one side, assuming a vertical orientation that looks like a graveyard headstone. Suntron performed a dimensional evaluation on seven manufacturers of capacitors and six manufacturers of resistors commonly used by its customers. The analysis, which looked at the component body and its terminations, revealed was that 86% of the capacitor manufacturers and 50% of the resistor manufacturers had different body and termination dimensions and tolerances. (By comparison, a similar evaluation of the same component manufacturers' 0201 and 0603 package types showed identical parts.)
Reno says these variations in the components must be accounted for in the pad geometry, or else tombstoning may occur. He also recommends treating each pad as a group, and ensuring the copper density of each pad is equal (or very close), meaning both pads achieve the same temperature and liquidus at the same time. Also, Reno says, both pads should achieve solder flow to exposed copper at the same time, and be equal in solder volume necessary to control capillary action.
Reno recommends a specific pad geometry for 0402a, reduces the soldermask clearance to 0.002" (from 0.005"), and suggests a connecting trace between pad and plane (or very wide trace) to be equal as the sister pad.
To view the white paper, click here.
By Matt Chanoff, Senior Consultant, Technology Forecasters Inc.
This white paper is an introduction to and spin-off from a larger, ongoing effort that Technology Forecasters Inc. (TFI) has undertaken to assess and benchmark the performance of outsource manufacturing companies, both electronics manufacturing services (EMS) and original design manufacturer (ODM), worldwide.
The purpose of this White Paper is to lay out a practical framework for identifying and understanding “best practices” as they relate to electronics outsource manufacturing, without attempting to assess the performance of any specific manufacturers.
This is a long-term, cumulative, project, and it is designed to benefit from multiple interviews undertaken over time, in order to discern changes and trends
in outsourcing practices. TFI is interviewing globally and including manufacturers of all sizes but is focusing solely on the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
perspective: What, from the perspective of OEMs, are the best practices of their outsourcing partners? What are the best practices OEMs employ to maximize
the benefits of outsourcing? The value of this approach is that it allows OEMs that currently outsource to benchmark the performance and services of their
partners, their internal manufacturing, and their in-house outsource management against the performance and services obtained by their competitors and peers.
OEMs that do not currently outsource, or that may increase the scope of their outsourcing, can gain insight into services and the level of service available. EMS
and ODM companies can compare their offerings with those of competitors and can identify areas of improvement or investment.
How three small-to-medium-sized companies have achieved lasting success in this tough, dynamic industry.
EMS and ODM Vital Roles in Customers’ Sustainability Roadmaps: How to create competitive advantage and increase customer loyalty
Technology Forecasters Keynote Presentation on the 30-year migration of the supply chain from OEMs to Contract Manufacturers and its impact on the OEM’s sustainability plans at the May 2011 International Electronics Recycling Conference and Expo (IERCE) in Las Vegas, NV.
Clients, colleagues, and friends who have seen or of deplorable conditions of certain manual electronics “recycling” communities in disadvantaged regions of the world ask, “How do I know where the products I no longer need end up, and how they are processed? Am I really doing the right thing by recycling them?” They ask how to tell which electronics recycling services are responsible for human and environmental health, adding, “Wouldn’t it be a good idea if there were certifications or standards for recyclers so we could choose the ethical ones?”
As far as standards, many recyclers are getting ISO 14001 certified, which provides a structure for continuous management and reduction of environmental impacts but by itself doesn’t prescribe performance requirements or audits for electronics-recycling practices. Now, we can point to two standards for electronics recycling – R2 and e-Stewards – to compare and contrast and find recyclers becoming certified to the standard of their choice, or both.
This white paper explains how the "IEEE P1687 IJTAG" standard will enable instruments originally embedded into chips for chip characterization and test can be reused later in circuit board design validation, volume manufacturing test and field service troubleshooting. The white paper describes and illustrates the on-chip IJTAG architecture. The paper also describes how validation, test and debug engineers will be able to deploy IJTAG-based tools to automate and schedule the operations of embedded instrument.
To download the paper, click here.